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Sourcecode: tar version File versions

create.c

/* Create a tar archive.

   Copyright (C) 1985, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001,
   2003, 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

   Written by John Gilmore, on 1985-08-25.

   This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
   Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option) any later
   version.

   This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
   WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General
   Public License for more details.

   You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
   with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
   59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.  */

#include "system.h"

#if HAVE_UTIME_H
# include <utime.h>
#else
struct utimbuf
  {
    long actime;
    long modtime;
  };
#endif

#include <quotearg.h>

#include "common.h"
#include <hash.h>

struct link
  {
    dev_t dev;
    ino_t ino;
    size_t nlink;
    char name[1];
  };

/* The maximum uintmax_t value that can be represented with DIGITS digits,
   assuming that each digit is BITS_PER_DIGIT wide.  */
#define MAX_VAL_WITH_DIGITS(digits, bits_per_digit) \
   ((digits) * (bits_per_digit) < sizeof (uintmax_t) * CHAR_BIT \
    ? ((uintmax_t) 1 << ((digits) * (bits_per_digit))) - 1 \
    : (uintmax_t) -1)

/* Convert VALUE to an octal representation suitable for tar headers.
   Output to buffer WHERE with size SIZE.
   The result is undefined if SIZE is 0 or if VALUE is too large to fit.  */

static void
to_octal (uintmax_t value, char *where, size_t size)
{
  uintmax_t v = value;
  size_t i = size;

  do
    {
      where[--i] = '0' + (v & ((1 << LG_8) - 1));
      v >>= LG_8;
    }
  while (i);
}

/* Convert NEGATIVE VALUE to a base-256 representation suitable for
   tar headers.  NEGATIVE is 1 if VALUE was negative before being cast
   to uintmax_t, 0 otherwise.  Output to buffer WHERE with size SIZE.
   The result is undefined if SIZE is 0 or if VALUE is too large to
   fit.  */

static void
to_base256 (int negative, uintmax_t value, char *where, size_t size)
{
  uintmax_t v = value;
  uintmax_t propagated_sign_bits =
    ((uintmax_t) - negative << (CHAR_BIT * sizeof v - LG_256));
  size_t i = size;

  do
    {
      where[--i] = v & ((1 << LG_256) - 1);
      v = propagated_sign_bits | (v >> LG_256);
    }
  while (i);
}

/* Convert NEGATIVE VALUE (which was originally of size VALSIZE) to
   external form, using SUBSTITUTE (...) if VALUE won't fit.  Output
   to buffer WHERE with size SIZE.  NEGATIVE is 1 iff VALUE was
   negative before being cast to uintmax_t; its original bitpattern
   can be deduced from VALSIZE, its original size before casting.
   TYPE is the kind of value being output (useful for diagnostics).
   Prefer the POSIX format of SIZE - 1 octal digits (with leading zero
   digits), followed by '\0'.  If this won't work, and if GNU or
   OLDGNU format is allowed, use '\200' followed by base-256, or (if
   NEGATIVE is nonzero) '\377' followed by two's complement base-256.
   If neither format works, use SUBSTITUTE (...)  instead.  Pass to
   SUBSTITUTE the address of an 0-or-1 flag recording whether the
   substitute value is negative.  */

static void
to_chars (int negative, uintmax_t value, size_t valsize,
        uintmax_t (*substitute) (int *),
        char *where, size_t size, const char *type)
{
  int base256_allowed = (archive_format == GNU_FORMAT
                   || archive_format == OLDGNU_FORMAT);

  /* Generate the POSIX octal representation if the number fits.  */
  if (! negative && value <= MAX_VAL_WITH_DIGITS (size - 1, LG_8))
    {
      where[size - 1] = '\0';
      to_octal (value, where, size - 1);
    }

  /* Otherwise, generate the base-256 representation if we are
     generating an old or new GNU format and if the number fits.  */
  else if (((negative ? -1 - value : value)
          <= MAX_VAL_WITH_DIGITS (size - 1, LG_256))
         && base256_allowed)
    {
      where[0] = negative ? -1 : 1 << (LG_256 - 1);
      to_base256 (negative, value, where + 1, size - 1);
    }

  /* Otherwise, if the number is negative, and if it would not cause
     ambiguity on this host by confusing positive with negative
     values, then generate the POSIX octal representation of the value
     modulo 2**(field bits).  The resulting tar file is
     machine-dependent, since it depends on the host word size.  Yuck!
     But this is the traditional behavior.  */
  else if (negative && valsize * CHAR_BIT <= (size - 1) * LG_8)
    {
      static int warned_once;
      if (! warned_once)
      {
        warned_once = 1;
        WARN ((0, 0, _("Generating negative octal headers")));
      }
      where[size - 1] = '\0';
      to_octal (value & MAX_VAL_WITH_DIGITS (valsize * CHAR_BIT, 1),
            where, size - 1);
    }

  /* Otherwise, output a substitute value if possible (with a
     warning), and an error message if not.  */
  else
    {
      uintmax_t maxval = (base256_allowed
                    ? MAX_VAL_WITH_DIGITS (size - 1, LG_256)
                    : MAX_VAL_WITH_DIGITS (size - 1, LG_8));
      char valbuf[UINTMAX_STRSIZE_BOUND + 1];
      char maxbuf[UINTMAX_STRSIZE_BOUND];
      char minbuf[UINTMAX_STRSIZE_BOUND + 1];
      char const *minval_string;
      char const *maxval_string = STRINGIFY_BIGINT (maxval, maxbuf);
      char const *value_string;

      if (base256_allowed)
      {
        uintmax_t m = maxval + 1 ? maxval + 1 : maxval / 2 + 1;
        char *p = STRINGIFY_BIGINT (m, minbuf + 1);
        *--p = '-';
        minval_string = p;
      }
      else
      minval_string = "0";

      if (negative)
      {
        char *p = STRINGIFY_BIGINT (- value, valbuf + 1);
        *--p = '-';
        value_string = p;
      }
      else
      value_string = STRINGIFY_BIGINT (value, valbuf);

      if (substitute)
      {
        int negsub;
        uintmax_t sub = substitute (&negsub) & maxval;
        /* FIXME: This is the only place where GNU_FORMAT differs from
             OLDGNU_FORMAT. Apart from this they are completely identical. */
        uintmax_t s = (negsub &= archive_format == GNU_FORMAT) ? - sub : sub;
        char subbuf[UINTMAX_STRSIZE_BOUND + 1];
        char *sub_string = STRINGIFY_BIGINT (s, subbuf + 1);
        if (negsub)
          *--sub_string = '-';
        WARN ((0, 0, _("value %s out of %s range %s..%s; substituting %s"),
             value_string, type, minval_string, maxval_string,
             sub_string));
        to_chars (negsub, s, valsize, 0, where, size, type);
      }
      else
      ERROR ((0, 0, _("value %s out of %s range %s..%s"),
            value_string, type, minval_string, maxval_string));
    }
}

static uintmax_t
gid_substitute (int *negative)
{
  gid_t r;
#ifdef GID_NOBODY
  r = GID_NOBODY;
#else
  static gid_t gid_nobody;
  if (!gid_nobody && !gname_to_gid ("nobody", &gid_nobody))
    gid_nobody = -2;
  r = gid_nobody;
#endif
  *negative = r < 0;
  return r;
}

void
gid_to_chars (gid_t v, char *p, size_t s)
{
  to_chars (v < 0, (uintmax_t) v, sizeof v, gid_substitute, p, s, "gid_t");
}

void
major_to_chars (major_t v, char *p, size_t s)
{
  to_chars (v < 0, (uintmax_t) v, sizeof v, 0, p, s, "major_t");
}

void
minor_to_chars (minor_t v, char *p, size_t s)
{
  to_chars (v < 0, (uintmax_t) v, sizeof v, 0, p, s, "minor_t");
}

void
mode_to_chars (mode_t v, char *p, size_t s)
{
  /* In the common case where the internal and external mode bits are the same,
     and we are not using POSIX or GNU format,
     propagate all unknown bits to the external mode.
     This matches historical practice.
     Otherwise, just copy the bits we know about.  */
  int negative;
  uintmax_t u;
  if (S_ISUID == TSUID && S_ISGID == TSGID && S_ISVTX == TSVTX
      && S_IRUSR == TUREAD && S_IWUSR == TUWRITE && S_IXUSR == TUEXEC
      && S_IRGRP == TGREAD && S_IWGRP == TGWRITE && S_IXGRP == TGEXEC
      && S_IROTH == TOREAD && S_IWOTH == TOWRITE && S_IXOTH == TOEXEC
      && archive_format != POSIX_FORMAT
      && archive_format != USTAR_FORMAT
      && archive_format != GNU_FORMAT)
    {
      negative = v < 0;
      u = v;
    }
  else
    {
      negative = 0;
      u = ((v & S_ISUID ? TSUID : 0)
         | (v & S_ISGID ? TSGID : 0)
         | (v & S_ISVTX ? TSVTX : 0)
         | (v & S_IRUSR ? TUREAD : 0)
         | (v & S_IWUSR ? TUWRITE : 0)
         | (v & S_IXUSR ? TUEXEC : 0)
         | (v & S_IRGRP ? TGREAD : 0)
         | (v & S_IWGRP ? TGWRITE : 0)
         | (v & S_IXGRP ? TGEXEC : 0)
         | (v & S_IROTH ? TOREAD : 0)
         | (v & S_IWOTH ? TOWRITE : 0)
         | (v & S_IXOTH ? TOEXEC : 0));
    }
  to_chars (negative, u, sizeof v, 0, p, s, "mode_t");
}

void
off_to_chars (off_t v, char *p, size_t s)
{
  to_chars (v < 0, (uintmax_t) v, sizeof v, 0, p, s, "off_t");
}

void
size_to_chars (size_t v, char *p, size_t s)
{
  to_chars (0, (uintmax_t) v, sizeof v, 0, p, s, "size_t");
}

void
time_to_chars (time_t v, char *p, size_t s)
{
  to_chars (v < 0, (uintmax_t) v, sizeof v, 0, p, s, "time_t");
}

static uintmax_t
uid_substitute (int *negative)
{
  uid_t r;
#ifdef UID_NOBODY
  r = UID_NOBODY;
#else
  static uid_t uid_nobody;
  if (!uid_nobody && !uname_to_uid ("nobody", &uid_nobody))
    uid_nobody = -2;
  r = uid_nobody;
#endif
  *negative = r < 0;
  return r;
}

void
uid_to_chars (uid_t v, char *p, size_t s)
{
  to_chars (v < 0, (uintmax_t) v, sizeof v, uid_substitute, p, s, "uid_t");
}

void
uintmax_to_chars (uintmax_t v, char *p, size_t s)
{
  to_chars (0, v, sizeof v, 0, p, s, "uintmax_t");
}

void
string_to_chars (char *str, char *p, size_t s)
{
  strncpy (p, str, s);
  p[s-1] = 0;
}


/* A file is not dumpable if
   a) it is empty *and* world-readable, or
   b) current archive is /dev/null */

bool
file_dumpable_p (struct tar_stat_info *st)
{
  return !(dev_null_output
         || (st->archive_file_size == 0
             && (st->stat.st_mode & MODE_R) == MODE_R));
}


/* Writing routines.  */

/* Write the EOT block(s).  Zero at least two blocks, through the end
   of the record.  Old tar, as previous versions of GNU tar, writes
   garbage after two zeroed blocks.  */
void
write_eot (void)
{
  union block *pointer = find_next_block ();
  memset (pointer->buffer, 0, BLOCKSIZE);
  set_next_block_after (pointer);
  pointer = find_next_block ();
  memset (pointer->buffer, 0, available_space_after (pointer));
  set_next_block_after (pointer);
}

/* Copy at most LEN bytes from SRC to DST. Terminate with NUL unless
   SRC is LEN characters long */
static void
tar_copy_str (char *dst, const char *src, size_t len)
{
  dst[len-1] = 0;
  strncpy (dst, src, len);
}

/* Write a "private" header */
union block *
start_private_header (const char *name, size_t size)
{
  time_t t;
  union block *header = find_next_block ();

  memset (header->buffer, 0, sizeof (union block));

  tar_copy_str (header->header.name, name, NAME_FIELD_SIZE);
  OFF_TO_CHARS (size, header->header.size);

  time (&t);
  TIME_TO_CHARS (t, header->header.mtime);
  MODE_TO_CHARS (S_IFREG|S_IRUSR|S_IWUSR|S_IRGRP|S_IROTH, header->header.mode);
  UID_TO_CHARS (getuid (), header->header.uid);
  GID_TO_CHARS (getgid (), header->header.gid);
  MAJOR_TO_CHARS (0, header->header.devmajor);
  MAJOR_TO_CHARS (0, header->header.devminor);
  strncpy (header->header.magic, TMAGIC, TMAGLEN);
  strncpy (header->header.version, TVERSION, TVERSLEN);
  return header;
}

/* Create a new header and store there at most NAME_FIELD_SIZE bytes of
   the file name */

static union block *
write_short_name (struct tar_stat_info *st)
{
  union block *header = find_next_block ();
  memset (header->buffer, 0, sizeof (union block));
  tar_copy_str (header->header.name, st->file_name, NAME_FIELD_SIZE);
  return header;
}

/* Write a GNUTYPE_LONGLINK or GNUTYPE_LONGNAME block.  */
static void
write_gnu_long_link (struct tar_stat_info *st, const char *p, char type)
{
  size_t size = strlen (p) + 1;
  size_t bufsize;
  union block *header;

  header = start_private_header ("././@LongLink", size);
  strcpy (header->header.magic, OLDGNU_MAGIC);
  header->header.typeflag = type;
  finish_header (st, header, -1);

  header = find_next_block ();

  bufsize = available_space_after (header);

  while (bufsize < size)
    {
      memcpy (header->buffer, p, bufsize);
      p += bufsize;
      size -= bufsize;
      set_next_block_after (header + (bufsize - 1) / BLOCKSIZE);
      header = find_next_block ();
      bufsize = available_space_after (header);
    }
  memcpy (header->buffer, p, size);
  memset (header->buffer + size, 0, bufsize - size);
  set_next_block_after (header + (size - 1) / BLOCKSIZE);
}

static size_t
split_long_name (const char *name, size_t length)
{
  size_t i;

  if (length > PREFIX_FIELD_SIZE)
    length = PREFIX_FIELD_SIZE+2;
  for (i = length - 1; i > 0; i--)
    if (ISSLASH (name[i]))
      break;
  return i;
}

static union block *
write_ustar_long_name (const char *name)
{
  size_t length = strlen (name);
  size_t i;
  union block *header;

  if (length > PREFIX_FIELD_SIZE + NAME_FIELD_SIZE + 1)
    {
      ERROR ((0, 0, _("%s: file name is too long (max %d); not dumped"),
            quotearg_colon (name),
            PREFIX_FIELD_SIZE + NAME_FIELD_SIZE + 1));
      return NULL;
    }

  i = split_long_name (name, length);
  if (i == 0 || length - i - 1 > NAME_FIELD_SIZE)
    {
      ERROR ((0, 0,
            _("%s: file name is too long (cannot be split); not dumped"),
            quotearg_colon (name)));
      return NULL;
    }

  header = find_next_block ();
  memset (header->buffer, 0, sizeof (header->buffer));
  memcpy (header->header.prefix, name, i);
  memcpy (header->header.name, name + i + 1, length - i - 1);

  return header;
}

/* Write a long link name, depending on the current archive format */
static void
write_long_link (struct tar_stat_info *st)
{
  switch (archive_format)
    {
    case POSIX_FORMAT:
      xheader_store ("linkpath", st, NULL);
      break;

    case V7_FORMAT:                 /* old V7 tar format */
    case USTAR_FORMAT:
    case STAR_FORMAT:
      ERROR ((0, 0,
            _("%s: link name is too long; not dumped"),
            quotearg_colon (st->link_name)));
      break;

    case OLDGNU_FORMAT:
    case GNU_FORMAT:
      write_gnu_long_link (st, st->link_name, GNUTYPE_LONGLINK);
      break;

    default:
      abort(); /*FIXME*/
    }
}

static union block *
write_long_name (struct tar_stat_info *st)
{
  switch (archive_format)
    {
    case POSIX_FORMAT:
      xheader_store ("path", st, NULL);
      break;

    case V7_FORMAT:
      if (strlen (st->file_name) > NAME_FIELD_SIZE-1)
      {
        ERROR ((0, 0, _("%s: file name is too long (max %d); not dumped"),
              quotearg_colon (st->file_name),
              NAME_FIELD_SIZE - 1));
        return NULL;
      }
      break;

    case USTAR_FORMAT:
    case STAR_FORMAT:
      return write_ustar_long_name (st->file_name);

    case OLDGNU_FORMAT:
    case GNU_FORMAT:
      write_gnu_long_link (st, st->file_name, GNUTYPE_LONGNAME);
      break;

    default:
      abort(); /*FIXME*/
    }
  return write_short_name (st);
}

static union block *
write_extended (struct tar_stat_info *st, union block *old_header)
{
  union block *header, hp;
  char *p;

  if (extended_header.buffer || extended_header.stk == NULL)
    return old_header;

  xheader_finish (&extended_header);
  memcpy (hp.buffer, old_header, sizeof (hp));
  p = xheader_xhdr_name (st);
  xheader_write (XHDTYPE, p, &extended_header);
  free (p);
  header = find_next_block ();
  memcpy (header, &hp.buffer, sizeof (hp.buffer));
  return header;
}

static union block *
write_header_name (struct tar_stat_info *st)
{
  if (archive_format == POSIX_FORMAT && !string_ascii_p (st->file_name))
    {
      xheader_store ("path", st, NULL);
      return write_short_name (st);
    }
  else if (NAME_FIELD_SIZE < strlen (st->file_name))
    return write_long_name (st);
  else
    return write_short_name (st);
}


/* Header handling.  */

/* Make a header block for the file whose stat info is st,
   and return its address.  */

union block *
start_header (struct tar_stat_info *st)
{
  union block *header;

  header = write_header_name (st);
  if (!header)
    return NULL;

  /* Override some stat fields, if requested to do so.  */

  if (owner_option != (uid_t) -1)
    st->stat.st_uid = owner_option;
  if (group_option != (gid_t) -1)
    st->stat.st_gid = group_option;
  if (mode_option)
    st->stat.st_mode = ((st->stat.st_mode & ~MODE_ALL)
               | mode_adjust (st->stat.st_mode, mode_option));

  /* Paul Eggert tried the trivial test ($WRITER cf a b; $READER tvf a)
     for a few tars and came up with the following interoperability
     matrix:

            WRITER
      1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9   READER
      . . . . . . . . .   1 = SunOS 4.2 tar
      # . . # # . . # #   2 = NEC SVR4.0.2 tar
      . . . # # . . # .   3 = Solaris 2.1 tar
      . . . . . . . . .   4 = GNU tar 1.11.1
      . . . . . . . . .   5 = HP-UX 8.07 tar
      . . . . . . . . .   6 = Ultrix 4.1
      . . . . . . . . .   7 = AIX 3.2
      . . . . . . . . .   8 = Hitachi HI-UX 1.03
      . . . . . . . . .   9 = Omron UNIOS-B 4.3BSD 1.60Beta

           . = works
           # = ``impossible file type''

     The following mask for old archive removes the `#'s in column 4
     above, thus making GNU tar both a universal donor and a universal
     acceptor for Paul's test.  */

  if (archive_format == V7_FORMAT || archive_format == USTAR_FORMAT)
    MODE_TO_CHARS (st->stat.st_mode & MODE_ALL, header->header.mode);
  else
    MODE_TO_CHARS (st->stat.st_mode, header->header.mode);

  if (st->stat.st_uid > MAXOCTAL7 && archive_format == POSIX_FORMAT)
    xheader_store ("uid", st, NULL);
  else
    UID_TO_CHARS (st->stat.st_uid, header->header.uid);

  if (st->stat.st_gid > MAXOCTAL7 && archive_format == POSIX_FORMAT)
    xheader_store ("gid", st, NULL);
  else
    GID_TO_CHARS (st->stat.st_gid, header->header.gid);

  if (st->stat.st_size > MAXOCTAL11 && archive_format == POSIX_FORMAT)
    xheader_store ("size", st, NULL);
  else
    OFF_TO_CHARS (st->stat.st_size, header->header.size);

  TIME_TO_CHARS (st->stat.st_mtime, header->header.mtime);

  /* FIXME */
  if (S_ISCHR (st->stat.st_mode)
      || S_ISBLK (st->stat.st_mode))
    {
      st->devmajor = major (st->stat.st_rdev);
      st->devminor = minor (st->stat.st_rdev);

      if (st->devmajor > MAXOCTAL7 && archive_format == POSIX_FORMAT)
      xheader_store ("devmajor", st, NULL);
      else
      MAJOR_TO_CHARS (st->devmajor, header->header.devmajor);

      if (st->devminor > MAXOCTAL7 && archive_format == POSIX_FORMAT)
      xheader_store ("devminor", st, NULL);
      else
      MAJOR_TO_CHARS (st->devminor, header->header.devminor);
    }
  else
    {
      MAJOR_TO_CHARS (0, header->header.devmajor);
      MINOR_TO_CHARS (0, header->header.devminor);
    }

  if (archive_format == POSIX_FORMAT)
    {
      xheader_store ("atime", st, NULL);
      xheader_store ("ctime", st, NULL);
    }
  else if (incremental_option)
    if (archive_format == OLDGNU_FORMAT || archive_format == GNU_FORMAT)
      {
      TIME_TO_CHARS (st->stat.st_atime, header->oldgnu_header.atime);
      TIME_TO_CHARS (st->stat.st_ctime, header->oldgnu_header.ctime);
      }

  header->header.typeflag = archive_format == V7_FORMAT ? AREGTYPE : REGTYPE;

  switch (archive_format)
    {
    case V7_FORMAT:
      break;

    case OLDGNU_FORMAT:
    case GNU_FORMAT:   /*FIXME?*/
      /* Overwrite header->header.magic and header.version in one blow.  */
      strcpy (header->header.magic, OLDGNU_MAGIC);
      break;

    case POSIX_FORMAT:
    case USTAR_FORMAT:
      strncpy (header->header.magic, TMAGIC, TMAGLEN);
      strncpy (header->header.version, TVERSION, TVERSLEN);
      break;

    default:
      abort ();
    }

  if (archive_format == V7_FORMAT || numeric_owner_option)
    {
      /* header->header.[ug]name are left as the empty string.  */
    }
  else
    {
      uid_to_uname (st->stat.st_uid, &st->uname);
      gid_to_gname (st->stat.st_gid, &st->gname);

      if (archive_format == POSIX_FORMAT
        && (strlen (st->uname) > UNAME_FIELD_SIZE
            || !string_ascii_p (st->uname)))
      xheader_store ("uname", st, NULL);
      else
      UNAME_TO_CHARS (st->uname, header->header.uname);

      if (archive_format == POSIX_FORMAT
        && (strlen (st->gname) > GNAME_FIELD_SIZE
            || !string_ascii_p (st->gname)))
      xheader_store ("gname", st, NULL);
      else
      GNAME_TO_CHARS (st->gname, header->header.gname);
    }

  return header;
}

void
simple_finish_header (union block *header)
{
  size_t i;
  int sum;
  char *p;

  memcpy (header->header.chksum, CHKBLANKS, sizeof header->header.chksum);

  sum = 0;
  p = header->buffer;
  for (i = sizeof *header; i-- != 0; )
    /* We can't use unsigned char here because of old compilers, e.g. V7.  */
    sum += 0xFF & *p++;

  /* Fill in the checksum field.  It's formatted differently from the
     other fields: it has [6] digits, a null, then a space -- rather than
     digits, then a null.  We use to_chars.
     The final space is already there, from
     checksumming, and to_chars doesn't modify it.

     This is a fast way to do:

     sprintf(header->header.chksum, "%6o", sum);  */

  uintmax_to_chars ((uintmax_t) sum, header->header.chksum, 7);

  set_next_block_after (header);
}

/* Finish off a filled-in header block and write it out.  We also
   print the file name and/or full info if verbose is on.  If BLOCK_ORDINAL
   is not negative, is the block ordinal of the first record for this
   file, which may be a preceding long name or long link record.  */
void
finish_header (struct tar_stat_info *st,
             union block *header, off_t block_ordinal)
{
  /* Note: It is important to do this before the call to write_extended(),
     so that the actual ustar header is printed */
  if (verbose_option
      && header->header.typeflag != GNUTYPE_LONGLINK
      && header->header.typeflag != GNUTYPE_LONGNAME
      && header->header.typeflag != XHDTYPE
      && header->header.typeflag != XGLTYPE)
    {
      /* These globals are parameters to print_header, sigh.  */

      current_header = header;
      current_format = archive_format;
      print_header (st, block_ordinal);
    }

  header = write_extended (st, header);
  simple_finish_header (header);
}


void
pad_archive (off_t size_left)
{
  union block *blk;
  while (size_left > 0)
    {
      save_sizeleft = size_left;
      blk = find_next_block ();
      memset (blk->buffer, 0, BLOCKSIZE);
      set_next_block_after (blk);
      size_left -= BLOCKSIZE;
    }
}

static enum dump_status
dump_regular_file (int fd, struct tar_stat_info *st)
{
  off_t size_left = st->stat.st_size;
  off_t block_ordinal;
  union block *blk;

  block_ordinal = current_block_ordinal ();
  blk = start_header (st);
  if (!blk)
    return dump_status_fail;

  /* Mark contiguous files, if we support them.  */
  if (archive_format != V7_FORMAT && S_ISCTG (st->stat.st_mode))
    blk->header.typeflag = CONTTYPE;

  finish_header (st, blk, block_ordinal);

  while (size_left > 0)
    {
      size_t bufsize, count;

      if (multi_volume_option)
      {
        assign_string (&save_name, st->file_name);
        save_sizeleft = size_left;
        save_totsize = st->stat.st_size;
      }
      blk = find_next_block ();

      bufsize = available_space_after (blk);

      if (size_left < bufsize)
      {
        /* Last read -- zero out area beyond.  */
        bufsize = size_left;
        count = bufsize % BLOCKSIZE;
        if (count)
          memset (blk->buffer + size_left, 0, BLOCKSIZE - count);
      }

      count = (fd < 0) ? bufsize : safe_read (fd, blk->buffer, bufsize);
      if (count == SAFE_READ_ERROR)
      {
        read_diag_details (st->orig_file_name,
                           st->stat.st_size - size_left, bufsize);
        pad_archive (size_left);
        return dump_status_short;
      }
      size_left -= count;

      set_next_block_after (blk + (bufsize - 1) / BLOCKSIZE);

      if (count != bufsize)
      {
        char buf[UINTMAX_STRSIZE_BOUND];
        memset (blk->buffer + count, 0, bufsize - count);
        WARN ((0, 0,
             ngettext ("%s: File shrank by %s byte; padding with zeros",
                     "%s: File shrank by %s bytes; padding with zeros",
                     size_left),
             quotearg_colon (st->orig_file_name),
             STRINGIFY_BIGINT (size_left, buf)));
        if (! ignore_failed_read_option)
          exit_status = TAREXIT_FAILURE;
        pad_archive (size_left);
        return dump_status_short;
      }
    }
  return dump_status_ok;
}

static void
dump_regular_finish (int fd, struct tar_stat_info *st, time_t original_ctime)
{
  if (fd >= 0)
    {
      struct stat final_stat;
      if (fstat (fd, &final_stat) != 0)
      {
        stat_diag (st->orig_file_name);
      }
      else if (final_stat.st_ctime != original_ctime)
      {
        WARN ((0, 0, _("%s: file changed as we read it"),
             quotearg_colon (st->orig_file_name)));
      }
      if (close (fd) != 0)
      {
        close_diag (st->orig_file_name);
      }
    }
  if (remove_files_option)
    {
      if (unlink (st->orig_file_name) == -1)
      unlink_error (st->orig_file_name);
    }
}

static void
dump_dir0 (char *directory,
         struct tar_stat_info *st, int top_level, dev_t parent_device)
{
  dev_t our_device = st->stat.st_dev;

  if (!is_avoided_name (st->orig_file_name))
    {
      union block *blk = NULL;
      off_t block_ordinal = current_block_ordinal ();
      st->stat.st_size = 0;   /* force 0 size on dir */

      blk = start_header (st);
      if (!blk)
      return;

      if (incremental_option)
      blk->header.typeflag = GNUTYPE_DUMPDIR;
      else /* if (standard_option) */
      blk->header.typeflag = DIRTYPE;

      /* If we're gnudumping, we aren't done yet so don't close it.  */

      if (!incremental_option)
      finish_header (st, blk, block_ordinal);
      else if (gnu_list_name->dir_contents)
      {
        off_t size_left;
        off_t totsize;
        size_t bufsize;
        ssize_t count;
        const char *buffer, *p_buffer;

        block_ordinal = current_block_ordinal ();
        buffer = gnu_list_name->dir_contents; /* FOO */
        totsize = 0;
        if (buffer)
          for (p_buffer = buffer; *p_buffer; )
            {
            size_t size = strlen (p_buffer) + 1;
            totsize += size;
            p_buffer += size;
            }
        totsize++;
        OFF_TO_CHARS (totsize, blk->header.size);
        finish_header (st, blk, block_ordinal);
        p_buffer = buffer;
        size_left = totsize;
        while (size_left > 0)
          {
            if (multi_volume_option)
            {
              assign_string (&save_name, st->orig_file_name);
              save_sizeleft = size_left;
              save_totsize = totsize;
            }
            blk = find_next_block ();
            bufsize = available_space_after (blk);
            if (size_left < bufsize)
            {
              bufsize = size_left;
              count = bufsize % BLOCKSIZE;
              if (count)
                memset (blk->buffer + size_left, 0, BLOCKSIZE - count);
            }
            memcpy (blk->buffer, p_buffer, bufsize);
            size_left -= bufsize;
            p_buffer += bufsize;
            set_next_block_after (blk + (bufsize - 1) / BLOCKSIZE);
          }
        if (multi_volume_option)
          assign_string (&save_name, 0);
        return;
      }
    }

  if (!recursion_option)
    return;

  if (one_file_system_option
      && !top_level
      && parent_device != st->stat.st_dev)
    {
      if (verbose_option)
      WARN ((0, 0,
             _("%s: file is on a different filesystem; not dumped"),
             quotearg_colon (st->orig_file_name)));
      return;
    }

  {
    char const *entry;
    size_t entry_len;
    char *name_buf = strdup (st->orig_file_name);
    size_t name_size = strlen (name_buf);
    size_t name_len = name_size;

    /* Now output all the files in the directory.  */
    /* FIXME: Should speed this up by cd-ing into the dir.  */

    for (entry = directory; (entry_len = strlen (entry)) != 0;
       entry += entry_len + 1)
      {
      if (name_size < name_len + entry_len)
        {
          name_size = name_len + entry_len;
          name_buf = xrealloc (name_buf, name_size + 1);
        }
      strcpy (name_buf + name_len, entry);
      if (!excluded_name (name_buf))
        dump_file (name_buf, 0, our_device);
      }

    free (name_buf);
  }
}

/* Ensure exactly one trailing slash.  */
static void
ensure_slash (char **pstr)
{
  size_t len = strlen (*pstr);
  while (len >= 1 && ISSLASH ((*pstr)[len - 1]))
    len--;
  if (!ISSLASH ((*pstr)[len]))
    *pstr = xrealloc (*pstr, len + 2);
  (*pstr)[len++] = '/';
  (*pstr)[len] = '\0';
}

static bool
dump_dir (struct tar_stat_info *st, int top_level, dev_t parent_device)
{
  char *directory;

  directory = savedir (st->orig_file_name);
  if (!directory)
    {
      savedir_diag (st->orig_file_name);
      return false;
    }

  ensure_slash (&st->orig_file_name);
  ensure_slash (&st->file_name);

  dump_dir0 (directory, st, top_level, parent_device);

  free (directory);
  return true;
}


/* Main functions of this module.  */

void
create_archive (void)
{
  char *p;

  open_archive (ACCESS_WRITE);
  xheader_write_global ();

  if (incremental_option)
    {
      size_t buffer_size = 1000;
      char *buffer = xmalloc (buffer_size);
      const char *q;

      collect_and_sort_names ();

      while ((p = name_from_list ()) != NULL)
      if (!excluded_name (p))
        dump_file (p, -1, (dev_t) 0);

      blank_name_list ();
      while ((p = name_from_list ()) != NULL)
      if (!excluded_name (p))
        {
          size_t plen = strlen (p);
          if (buffer_size <= plen)
            {
            while ((buffer_size *= 2) <= plen)
              continue;
            buffer = xrealloc (buffer, buffer_size);
            }
          memcpy (buffer, p, plen);
          if (! ISSLASH (buffer[plen - 1]))
            buffer[plen++] = '/';
          q = gnu_list_name->dir_contents;
          if (q)
            while (*q)
            {
              size_t qlen = strlen (q);
              if (*q == 'Y')
                {
                  if (buffer_size < plen + qlen)
                  {
                    while ((buffer_size *=2 ) < plen + qlen)
                      continue;
                    buffer = xrealloc (buffer, buffer_size);
                  }
                  strcpy (buffer + plen, q + 1);
                  dump_file (buffer, -1, (dev_t) 0);
                }
              q += qlen + 1;
            }
        }
      free (buffer);
    }
  else
    {
      while ((p = name_next (1)) != NULL)
      if (!excluded_name (p))
        dump_file (p, 1, (dev_t) 0);
    }

  write_eot ();
  close_archive ();

  if (listed_incremental_option)
    write_directory_file ();
}


/* Calculate the hash of a link.  */
static unsigned
hash_link (void const *entry, unsigned n_buckets)
{
  struct link const *l = entry;
  uintmax_t num = l->dev ^ l->ino;
  return num % n_buckets;
}

/* Compare two links for equality.  */
static bool
compare_links (void const *entry1, void const *entry2)
{
  struct link const *link1 = entry1;
  struct link const *link2 = entry2;
  return ((link1->dev ^ link2->dev) | (link1->ino ^ link2->ino)) == 0;
}

static void
unknown_file_error (char *p)
{
  WARN ((0, 0, _("%s: Unknown file type; file ignored"),
       quotearg_colon (p)));
  if (!ignore_failed_read_option)
    exit_status = TAREXIT_FAILURE;
}


/* Handling of hard links */

/* Table of all non-directories that we've written so far.  Any time
   we see another, we check the table and avoid dumping the data
   again if we've done it once already.  */
static Hash_table *link_table;

/* Try to dump stat as a hard link to another file in the archive. If
   succeeded returns true */
static bool
dump_hard_link (struct tar_stat_info *st)
{
  if (link_table && st->stat.st_nlink > 1)
    {
      struct link lp;
      struct link *duplicate;
      off_t block_ordinal;
      union block *blk;

      lp.ino = st->stat.st_ino;
      lp.dev = st->stat.st_dev;

      if ((duplicate = hash_lookup (link_table, &lp)))
      {
        /* We found a link.  */
        char const *link_name = safer_name_suffix (duplicate->name, true);

        duplicate->nlink--;

        block_ordinal = current_block_ordinal ();
        assign_string (&st->link_name, link_name);
        if (NAME_FIELD_SIZE < strlen (link_name))
          write_long_link (st);

        st->stat.st_size = 0;
        blk = start_header (st);
        if (!blk)
          return true;
        tar_copy_str (blk->header.linkname, link_name, NAME_FIELD_SIZE);

        blk->header.typeflag = LNKTYPE;
        finish_header (st, blk, block_ordinal);

        if (remove_files_option && unlink (st->orig_file_name) != 0)
          unlink_error (st->orig_file_name);

        return true;
      }
    }
  return false;
}

static void
file_count_links (struct tar_stat_info *st)
{
  if (st->stat.st_nlink > 1)
    {
      struct link *duplicate;
      struct link *lp = xmalloc (offsetof (struct link, name)
                         + strlen (st->orig_file_name) + 1);
      lp->ino = st->stat.st_ino;
      lp->dev = st->stat.st_dev;
      lp->nlink = st->stat.st_nlink;
      strcpy (lp->name, st->orig_file_name);

      if (! ((link_table
            || (link_table = hash_initialize (0, 0, hash_link,
                                    compare_links, 0)))
           && (duplicate = hash_insert (link_table, lp))))
      xalloc_die ();

      if (duplicate != lp)
      abort ();
      lp->nlink--;
    }
}

/* For each dumped file, check if all its links were dumped. Emit
   warnings if it is not so. */
void
check_links (void)
{
  struct link *lp;

  if (!link_table)
    return;

  for (lp = hash_get_first (link_table); lp;
       lp = hash_get_next (link_table, lp))
    {
      if (lp->nlink)
      {
        WARN ((0, 0, _("Missing links to '%s'.\n"), lp->name));
      }
    }
}


/* Dump a single file, recursing on directories.  P is the file name
   to dump.  TOP_LEVEL tells whether this is a top-level call; zero
   means no, positive means yes, and negative means the top level
   of an incremental dump.  PARENT_DEVICE is the device of P's
   parent directory; it is examined only if TOP_LEVEL is zero. */

/* FIXME: One should make sure that for *every* path leading to setting
   exit_status to failure, a clear diagnostic has been issued.  */

static void
dump_file0 (struct tar_stat_info *st, char *p,
          int top_level, dev_t parent_device)
{
  union block *header;
  char type;
  time_t original_ctime;
  struct utimbuf restore_times;
  off_t block_ordinal = -1;

  if (interactive_option && !confirm ("add", p))
    return;

  assign_string (&st->orig_file_name, p);
  assign_string (&st->file_name, safer_name_suffix (p, false));

  if (deref_stat (dereference_option, p, &st->stat) != 0)
    {
      stat_diag (p);
      return;
    }
  st->archive_file_size = st->stat.st_size;
  sys_stat_nanoseconds (st);
  original_ctime = st->stat.st_ctime;
  restore_times.actime = st->stat.st_atime;
  restore_times.modtime = st->stat.st_mtime;

#ifdef S_ISHIDDEN
  if (S_ISHIDDEN (st->stat.st_mode))
    {
      char *new = (char *) alloca (strlen (p) + 2);
      if (new)
      {
        strcpy (new, p);
        strcat (new, "@");
        p = new;
      }
    }
#endif

  /* See if we want only new files, and check if this one is too old to
     put in the archive.  */

  if (!S_ISDIR (st->stat.st_mode)
      && OLDER_STAT_TIME (st->stat, m)
      && (!after_date_option || OLDER_STAT_TIME (st->stat, c)))
    {
      if (0 < top_level) /* equivalent to !incremental_option */
      WARN ((0, 0, _("%s: file is unchanged; not dumped"),
             quotearg_colon (p)));
      /* FIXME: recheck this return.  */
      return;
    }

  /* See if we are trying to dump the archive.  */
  if (sys_file_is_archive (st))
    {
      WARN ((0, 0, _("%s: file is the archive; not dumped"),
           quotearg_colon (p)));
      return;
    }

  if (S_ISDIR (st->stat.st_mode))
    {
      dump_dir (st, top_level, parent_device);
      if (atime_preserve_option)
      utime (p, &restore_times);
      return;
    }
  else if (is_avoided_name (p))
    return;
  else
    {
      /* Check for multiple links.  */
      if (dump_hard_link (st))
      return;

      /* This is not a link to a previously dumped file, so dump it.  */

      if (S_ISREG (st->stat.st_mode)
        || S_ISCTG (st->stat.st_mode))
      {
        int fd;
        enum dump_status status;

        if (file_dumpable_p (st))
          {
            fd = open (st->orig_file_name,
                   O_RDONLY | O_BINARY);
            if (fd < 0)
            {
              if (!top_level && errno == ENOENT)
                WARN ((0, 0, _("%s: File removed before we read it"),
                     quotearg_colon (st->orig_file_name)));
              else
                open_diag (st->orig_file_name);
              return;
            }
          }
        else
          fd = -1;

        if (sparse_option && sparse_file_p (st))
          {
            status = sparse_dump_file (fd, st);
            if (status == dump_status_not_implemented)
            status = dump_regular_file (fd, st);
          }
        else
          status = dump_regular_file (fd, st);

        switch (status)
          {
          case dump_status_ok:
            if (multi_volume_option)
            assign_string (&save_name, 0);
            dump_regular_finish (fd, st, original_ctime);
            break;

          case dump_status_short:
            if (multi_volume_option)
            assign_string (&save_name, 0);
            close (fd);
            break;

          case dump_status_fail:
            close (fd);
            return;

          case dump_status_not_implemented:
            abort ();
          }

        if (atime_preserve_option)
          utime (st->orig_file_name, &restore_times);
        file_count_links (st);
        return;
      }
#ifdef HAVE_READLINK
      else if (S_ISLNK (st->stat.st_mode))
      {
        char *buffer;
        int size;
        size_t linklen = st->stat.st_size;
        if (linklen != st->stat.st_size || linklen + 1 == 0)
          xalloc_die ();
        buffer = (char *) alloca (linklen + 1);
        size = readlink (p, buffer, linklen + 1);
        if (size < 0)
          {
            readlink_diag (p);
            return;
          }
        buffer[size] = '\0';
        assign_string (&st->link_name, buffer);
        if (size > NAME_FIELD_SIZE)
          write_long_link (st);

        block_ordinal = current_block_ordinal ();
        st->stat.st_size = 0; /* force 0 size on symlink */
        header = start_header (st);
        if (!header)
          return;
        tar_copy_str (header->header.linkname, buffer, NAME_FIELD_SIZE);
        header->header.typeflag = SYMTYPE;
        finish_header (st, header, block_ordinal);
        /* nothing more to do to it */

        if (remove_files_option)
          {
            if (unlink (p) == -1)
            unlink_error (p);
          }
        file_count_links (st);
        return;
      }
#endif
      else if (S_ISCHR (st->stat.st_mode))
      type = CHRTYPE;
      else if (S_ISBLK (st->stat.st_mode))
      type = BLKTYPE;
      else if (S_ISFIFO (st->stat.st_mode))
      type = FIFOTYPE;
      else if (S_ISSOCK (st->stat.st_mode))
      {
        WARN ((0, 0, _("%s: socket ignored"), quotearg_colon (p)));
        return;
      }
      else if (S_ISDOOR (st->stat.st_mode))
      {
        WARN ((0, 0, _("%s: door ignored"), quotearg_colon (p)));
        return;
      }
      else
      {
        unknown_file_error (p);
        return;
      }
    }

  if (archive_format == V7_FORMAT)
    {
      unknown_file_error (p);
      return;
    }

  block_ordinal = current_block_ordinal ();
  st->stat.st_size = 0; /* force 0 size */
  header = start_header (st);
  if (!header)
    return;
  header->header.typeflag = type;

  if (type != FIFOTYPE)
    {
      MAJOR_TO_CHARS (major (st->stat.st_rdev),
                  header->header.devmajor);
      MINOR_TO_CHARS (minor (st->stat.st_rdev),
                  header->header.devminor);
    }

  finish_header (st, header, block_ordinal);
  if (remove_files_option)
    {
      if (unlink (p) == -1)
      unlink_error (p);
    }
}

void
dump_file (char *p, int top_level, dev_t parent_device)
{
  struct tar_stat_info st;
  tar_stat_init (&st);
  dump_file0 (&st, p, top_level, parent_device);
  tar_stat_destroy (&st);
}

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